Title IX is a law created in 1972 prohibiting discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities that receive federal funding. In 2022, we’re celebrating the 50th anniversary of Title IX, an important milestone for women’s rights. This article will look at the timeline of Title IX and how it has evolved over the years.
June 1972: Congress passes Title IX.
May 1979: Individuals earn the right to sue educational institutions that they believe are in violation of Title IX.
December 1979: The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare introduces mandatory testing to determine an athletics program’s compliance with Title IX.
September 1980: Universities establish a grievance procedure for students to file sexual harassment complaints. This is after the female students of Yale filed a Title IX gender discrimination complaint against the university for sexual harassment.
February 1984: Title IX faces a setback after the Supreme Court declares that only the specific programs receiving federal funding must comply with Title IX and not the entire institution.
March 1988: In response to public outcry, Congress passes the Civil Rights Restoration Act, which overturns the Supreme Court’s decision in Grove City v. Bell and reaffirms Title IX’s reach across an entire institution.
February 1992: Title IX complainants gain the right to seek monetary damages in court.
October 1994: Through the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act, colleges and universities must disclose gender-specific data on operating expenses, salaries, enrollment, and more.
March 1997: The Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights requires that institutions take accountability by working to punish and prevent sexual harassment behaviors in their programs.
October 2002: In honor of its lead sponsor and author, the late Patsy T. Mink, Title IX is renamed “Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act.”
March 2005: The Department of Education makes it easier for schools to deny opportunities and funding for women’s sports by allowing them to base their athletic programs around gender-specific survey responses from students.
April 2010: Under President Obama, the DoE of education reverses the 2005 decision policy.
April 2011: The Dear Colleague Letter is issued, urging institutions to proactively fight campus sexual assault.
April 2015: New guidelines require that institutions use the lowest standard of proof to determine whether the accused is guilty.
May 2016: Title IX now protects transgender students. They may also use bathrooms and lockers that align with their gender identity.
February 2017: Betsy DeVos repeals the 2016 guidelines around the treatment of transgender students.
September 2017: Under President Donald Trump, the Department of Education rescinds the Obama administration’s Title IX guidance on sexual assault.
May 2020: New regulations are released, reducing the rights of survivors and the responsibility of institutions.
April 2021: LGBTQ students file a lawsuit arguing that the religious exemptions from the Title IX regulations are unconstitutional.
June 2021: Title IX protection of transgender students is reaffirmed under Joe Biden.
December 2021: New Title IX regulations regarding the handling of sexual misconduct are scheduled to be announced in April 2022.